On December 10, 2019, the three countries reached a revised USMCA agreement. On January 29, 2020, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs Chrystia Freeland introduced the USMCA C-4 Transposition Act in the House of Commons[93] and passed the first reading without a registered vote. On February 6, the bill passed second reading in the House of Commons by 275 votes to 28, with the Bloc Québécois voting against and all other parties voting in its favour, and it was referred to the Standing Committee on International Trade. [99] [100] [101] On 27 February 2020, the committee voted to send the bill to Parliament for third reading, without amendments. The “Environment” chapter contains the most comprehensive environmental commitments applicable to a previous U.S. agreement, including obligations to combat trade in wild plants, wood and fish; Strengthen law enforcement networks to curb human trafficking; and address pressing environmental issues, such as air quality and marine waste. Sectoral chapters, including Chapter 12, on FDA-regulated products have not been considered in most previous trade agreements, including NAFTA. Therefore, the inclusion of these annexes by the USMCA is an innovation not only in U.S. trade policy, but also for international public health.

In September 2018, the United States reached an agreement with Mexico and Canada to renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Once completed and implemented, the new U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) will further strengthen U.S. highly productive and integrated agricultural relationships with its North American partners, ensure preferential market access for U.S. exporters, and strengthen commitments to fair and science-based trade rules. The new agreement came into force on July 1, 2020. One of President Trump`s main goals in the renegotiation is to ensure that the agreement benefits American workers. The United States, Mexico and Canada have approved a laboratory chapter that brings work obligations to the heart of the agreement, makes them fully applicable and is the strongest provisions of any trade agreement. The negotiations focused “primarily on car exports, tariffs on steel and aluminum, as well as the milk, egg and poultry markets.” A provision “prevents any party from enacting laws that restrict the cross-border flow of data.” [11] Compared to NAFTA, the USMCA increases environmental and labour standards and encourages domestic production of cars and trucks. [12] The agreement also provides up-to-date intellectual property protection, gives the U.S. more access to the Canadian milk market, imposes a quota for Canadian and Mexican auto production, and increases the customs limit for Canadians who purchase U.S. products online from $20 to $150. [13] The full list of differences between USMCA and ALEFTA is listed on the Website of the United States Trade Representative (USTR).

[14] The U.S.-Mexico-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) is a trade agreement between these parties. The USMCA replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). On December 12, 2019, the Mexican Senate adopted the revised treaty by 107 votes to 1. [89] On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its readiness to implement the agreement and joined Canada,[15] although it requested that its auto industry have additional time to comply with the agreement. [90] Growing objections within Member States to U.S. trade policy and various aspects of the USMCA have had an impact on the signing and ratification process.