Singapore is a city-state in Southeast Asia, at the southern tip of Malaysia, and across the Strait of Malacca from Indonesia. It has a population of 4.4 million, an area about 3.5 times larger than the District of Columbia, gross domestic product (GDP) of about $88 billion and a per capita income of about $20,600. It is a major trading country whose imports and imports generally exceed its GDP. Singapore has been a strong supporter of trade liberalization and supports the security role of the United States in Asia. Anti-dumping or countervailing duties instituted by unfair trade (e.g. B foreign prices and government subsidies) or other national laws are not covered by the free trade agreement (Fn. 7-1). In March 2003, the only anti-dumping duty instituted by the United States on Singapore products applied to ball bearings. (22) Singapore has agreed to authorize the importation of therapeutic chewing gum from the United States for sale and supply, subject to health product laws and regulations (Article 2.11). This paves the way for the importation of therapeutic types of American chewing gum, perhaps such as teeth whitening and nicotine nuclei, which are intended to help smoking cessation, to be sold there – probably through pharmacies. Some information reports had indicated that prescriptions would be required to buy the gums, but this provision does not appear in the text of the agreement, and the Singapore government would have agreed that there would be no need for a prescription. Gum has been banned in Singapore since 1992 to protect the clean city and subways. (20) U.S.

interests have also expressed support for the liberalization of the sale of sugar-free chewing gum. All of the key obligations of the agreement, including the labour and environmental provisions, are governed by the dispute settlement provisions of the agreement (Chapter 20). Dispute resolution procedures are considered by negotiators to be high standards of openness and transparency and include: the free trade agreement includes an integrated public procurement initiative (ISI) [Article 3.2 (1-2)], provision that applies to positions already negotiated duty-free for both countries under the World Trade Organization Information Technology Agreement (signed by 29 nations). The Integrated Purchasing Initiative also covers certain medical devices. The FTA list of products covered by the initiative includes 155 elements of the tariff code and includes products such as automatic information processing machines, magnetic discs, integrated circuits, video cameras, fiberglass, semiconductor manufacturing machines, network equipment and instruments and devices used in medicine. These products must be treated as being from Singapore when shipped from Singapore. Information technologies and qualified medical components produced and exported to the United States, particularly in the Indonesian islands of Batam or bintan, would be considered to originate in Singapore if they met the rules of origin of the free trade agreement.